Heat a large saucepan over medium-high heat. Add the olive oil and the sausage. Sauté until browned and cooked through, about 8-10 minutes. Transfer to a plate using a slotted spoon. Set aside.
Add cannellini beans and red pepper flakes to the pan. Stirring occasionally and mashing some of the beans with a spoon, cook until they begin to brown, about 5 minutes. Transfer half of the beans to the plate with the sausage.
Add wine to the pan and bring to a boil. Cook until liquid is almost completely evaporated, about 2 minutes. Stir in hot pasta, escarole and ½ cup of the hot pasta water. Continue to cook until escarole is wilted and the sauce has thickened, about 4 minutes.
Stir in the ½ cup of the grated cheese. Toss until cheese is melted and the sauce is glossy, about 1 minute. Add sausage and the remaining beans.
Divide among bowls and serve sprinkled with grated cheese.